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Catamarca, officially Province of Catamarca, is one of the 23 provinces that make up the Argentine Republic. In turn, it is one of the 24 self-governing states or jurisdictions of the first order that make up the country, and one of the 24 national legislative electoral districts. The capital and most populated city is San Fernando del Valle de Catamarca. It is located in the northwest of the country, in the Norte Grande Argentino region, bordering Salta to the north, Tucumán and Santiago del Estero to the east, Córdoba to the southeast, La Rioja to the south and Chile to the west, whose limit is determined by the water divide of the Andes mountain range.
With 368 000 inhabitants in 2010 it is the fifth least populated province - ahead of La Rioja, the Province of La Pampa, Santa Cruz and Tierra del Fuego Antarctica and islands of the South Atlantic, the least populated - and with 3.5 inhabitants / km², the fifth less densely populated, ahead of Río Negro, Chubut, La Pampa and Santa Cruz, the least densely populated. It was inhabited by the native population of the region for several millennia until the intervention of the Spanish conquerors in the mid-seventeenth century, and has since received several groups of immigrants, especially Spanish, although unlike other provinces in Argentina, these have not exceeded to the original population. And from the mixture of both groups arose the current population of the province, composed mainly of mestizos. Its economy is one of the most diversified in the country, dealing mainly with mining, industry, commerce, tourism, livestock and agriculture. He also holds the position number 12 in the ranking of human development of the first-order jurisdictions of Argentina.