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Xochimilco is one of the 16 city halls of Mexico City. It is located in the southeast of the Mexican capital, and has an area of ​​122 km² The word Xochimilco comes from the Nahuatl language. Xōchi- 'flower', mīl- 'farmland' and -co postposition of place, commonly translated as "the seed of flowers". The origins of Xochimilco go back to pre-Hispanic times. Since the Mesoamerican Preclassic Period, its banks and islands were home to diverse peoples of unknown origin. At the beginning of the Postclassic, Xochimilco was an important alterpetl that was submitted by the Mexicas in the 15th century. During the Colony and the first years of independent life in Mexico, the territory of Xochimilco became a food supplier for Mexico City.

In the territory of Xochimilco there are 14 original villages that preserve many traits of their traditional culture and indigenous heritage, despite the advance of urbanization. In addition, the mountains of the south and the lacustrine area of ​​the center are part of the largest natural reserve In contrast, the northern area of ​​Xochimilco is fully integrated into the urban sprawl of Mexico City, and it is home to some industrial and service areas that are an important part of the economic life of the delegation. Xochimilco is particularly important because of the existence of chinampas. They are the testimony of an ancient Mesoamerican agricultural technique that was developed and shared by several peoples of the Valley of Mexico. After the drying of the Anahuac lakes, only Xochimilco and Tláhuac preserve the chinampería.

Therefore, it is one of the main tourist destinations of the Federal District that attracts both Mexican and foreign visitors. In order to contribute to the preservation of the lacustrine environment, Unesco proclaimed the chinampas of Xochimilco as a World Heritage Site in 1987. The declaration has been twice endangered due to the ecological deterioration in the face of the advance of urbanization. In Xochimilco, the Dolores Olmedo Museum is located, which focuses on the diffusion of the work of painters Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo. The museum is located within the farm "La Noria" construction dating from the seventeenth century. Apochquiyauhtzin, the last Xochimilca king, was established in this place. The museum opened its doors for the first time on September 17,1994. It has 139 works by Diego Rivera and 25 works by Frida Khalo. It has twelve rooms that exhibit important works.

The museum takes its name from the collector Dolores Olmedo Patiño, who bequeathed to the people of Mexico his collection of works of the two painters mentioned.