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Tláhuac is one of the 16 city halls of Mexico City. Its term covers more than 83 km2 and is located in the southeast of the Mexican capital, framed by the Santa Catarina mountain range to the north and Teuhtli to the south. The center corresponds to the lacustrine vessels of Xochimilco and Chalco. Only the channels of the Chinampera zone and the wetlands are conserved in these lakes. During the prehispanic period, in tlahuaquense land agricultural villages were established as Terremote Tlaltenco. In 1222 a group of Nahua affiliation founded Cuitláhuac - the current San Pedro Tláhuac - on an islet between the two lakes. At the time of the Spanish Conquest, Cuitlahuacas, Mixquicas and Xochimilcas were established around the lakes.

Between the colonial period and the nineteenth century, Tláhuac changed its domain between Xochimilco and Chalco. During the Mexican Revolution the peoples of the south of Tláhuac supported the uprising of Emiliano Zapata. At the end of the war, all were endowed with ejido lands, some of which continue to be cultivated until the first decade of the 21st century. Tláhuac was constituted as an independent municipality in 1924, when it was separated for the second time from Xochimilco, now under the management of Senator Severino Ceniceros. It received the category of delegation in 1928, when the municipal regime of the Federal District was suppressed. Until the decade of 1980 Tláhuac was a delegation of purely rural character, for that reason it was well-known like the Province of the Anahuac.

During the last thirty years, the demographic pressure of the megalopolis of the Valley of Mexico has encouraged the rapid urbanization of the territory, so that urban areas cover approximately a third of it. The rest constitutes an important natural reserve, but the advance of the city threatens the conservation of these spaces. In Tláhuac there are seven original towns whose roots are in pre-Hispanic times. Three of them preserve areas of chinampería that are part of the polygon declared World Heritage by Unesco in 1987 within the ancient lake of Xochimilco. To these people we can add the important migratory flow of the interior of the city and the rest of Mexico that make Tláhuac an area of ​​great contrasts between tradition and its peripheral position within one of the largest urban agglomerations in the world.

The towns that make up Tláhuac are: San Pedro Tláhuac, San Francisco Tlaltenco, San Andrés Mixquic, Santiago Zapotitlán, Santa Catarina Yecahuitzotl, San Juan Ixtayopan and San Nicolás Tetelco. On December 9,2015, the Congress of the Union approved the reform in general, with reservations in 10 articles that comprise it. On December 15,2015, the Senate of the Republic approved the reform in general and sent it to local congresses for discussion. It was approved by these state legislative bodies, and ratified and promulgated by President Enrique Peña Nieto on January 29,2016. With this, the Federal District became the City of Mexico and the delegations in mayorships. On October 1,2018, Raymundo Martínez Vite became the first mayor of the nascent Tláhuac City Hall.