Orcadas, also known as Orcadas Islands, is an archipelago located in the north of Scotland, located to 16 kilometers to the north of the coast of Caithness. Orkneys comprises approximately 70 islands, of which only 20 are inhabited, the largest island, known as the Mainland, has an area of 523.25 km², which makes it the sixth largest island of the Scottish islands. And the tenth largest island in the British Isles. The largest population settlement and administrative center is Kirkwall. The name "Orkney Islands" dates back to the first century BC or earlier, and the islands have been inhabited for at least 8500 years. Originally they were occupied by tribes of the Mesolithic and the Neolithic and then by the Picts.
Norway invaded the Orkneys in 875. They were subsequently annexed by the Kingdom of Scotland in 1472 after the failed payment of a dowry to James III of Scotland after his marriage to Margaret of Denmark. The Orkneys contain one of the oldest and best Neolithic sites preserved from Europe. The "Neolithic Heart of the Orkneys" is a place designated by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. The Orkneys are also one of the councils of Scotland, a constituency of the Scottish Parliament, a holding area and an old county. The local council is the Orkney Council, one of the three councils in Scotland with the largest elected members, which are independent.
Most of the islands are found in two groups, the islands of the North and the Islands of the South, all of which have an underlying geological base of the old red sand. The climate is temperate and the soils are very fertile, most of the land is cultivated. Agriculture is the most important sector of the economy and marine resources and energy are increasingly important. The people of the islands are known as Orcadians and have their own dialect and a rich heritage of folklore. There is an abundance of marine and bird fauna.