Boquerón is one of the seventeen departments that, together with Asunción, the Capital District, form the Republic of Paraguay. Its capital and most populated city is Philadelphia. It is located to the northwest of the western region of the country, bounded on the north by Alto Paraguay, on the east by Presidente Hayes, and on the south by the Pilcomayo River that separates it from Argentina, to the trifinio Hito Esmeralda, where its western border begins with Bolivia. With 63 011 habs. In 2017 it is the second least populated department, ahead of Alto Paraguay, with 91,669 km², the most extensive and with 0.69 inhabitants / km², the second least densely populated, ahead of Alto Paraguay.
The Mennonite colonies that live in Boquerón, produce about 65% of the production of dairy and meat of the country, with advanced technology.