The Province of Sucumbíos is one of the 24 provinces that make up the Republic of Ecuador, located in the north of the country, in the geographical area known as the Amazon region, mainly on the western flanks of the western mountain range in the west and the extensive Amazonian plain To the East. Its administrative capital is the city of Nueva Loja, which is also its largest and most populated city. It occupies a territory of about 18 612 km², being the fourth province of the country by extension, behind Pastaza, Morona Santiago and Orellana.
It borders on the south with Napo and Orellana, on the west with Carchi, Imbabura and Pichincha, on the east with the Putumayo province belonging to Peru and on the north with the departments of Nariño and Putumayo, belonging to Colombia. In the Sucumbian territory 176 472 people live, according to the last national census, being the seventeenth most populated in the country and the most populated of the Amazon. The Province of Sucumbíos is made up of 7 cantons, with their respective urban and rural parishes. According to the last territorial ordinance, the province of Sucumbíos will belong to a region included also by the provinces of Imbabura, Esmeraldas and Carchi, although it is not officially formed, called North. It is one of the most important administrative, economic, financial and commercial centers of the Amazon, it is also one of the main provinces that provide the Ecuadorian State with the oil that is exported.
The main activities of the province are oil extraction, trade and agriculture. Trade in the border, which links trade and tourism to Ecuador and Colombia, the customs register a strong exchange: newly assembled cars, agricultural products and clothing, come and go, during the 365 days of the year. The jungles of Cuzco are the birthplace of 4 indigenous nationalities of the Amazonian Region of Ecuador: the Cofán, the Quichuas of the Amazon, the Siona and the Secoya. He had different migration periods coming from the Tucanos and Encabellados. The Spanish colonization occurred with the Spanish foundation of "Écija" in 1558. During that period the maximum entity and precursor of the province would be the Government of Mocoa and Sucumbíos.
After the independence war and the annexation of Ecuador to the Gran Colombia, the Pichincha Province was created on June 25,1824, in which within its limits was the current Sucumbian territory, then it would become part of the great Province of Oriente, later would become part of the Province of Napo Pastaza and then of Napo. On February 13,1989, the twenty-first province of the country, the Province of Sucumbíos, was created.