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Ancash or Ancash is one of the twenty-four departments that make up the Republic of Peru. Its capital is Huaraz and its most populated city, Chimbote. It is located in the west of the country, bounded on the north by La Libertad, on the east by Huánuco, on the south by Lima and on the west by the Pacific Ocean. With 29.6 inhabitants / km² it is the eighth most densely populated department, behind Lima, Lambayeque, La Libertad, Piura, Tumbes, Cajamarca and Ica. It was founded on June 12,1835.
In the geographical area, within the department there are clearly two types of landscapes: the arid coastal plain, which dominates the entire western area of the region with an average maximum width of 15 km, and the mountainous areas, which occupy 72% of the departmental territory and that includes the geographical features of the Cordilleras Blanca, Negra, Huallanca, Huayhuash, the Eastern Sierra de Ancash and the Marañón Canyon, areas that together have 20 peaks above the 6,000 meters. These geographical features give rise to very important rivers such as the Santa and the Pativilca that flow into the Pacific Ocean, and the Marañón, a tributary of the Amazon that oats in the Atlantic. The history of Áncash is linked to the earliest cultural manifestations of Ancient Peru, from the development of stone works from the Archaic to the thirteenth century BC. C., with the man from the Cueva del Guitarrero. It receives the influence of the Caral-Supe civilization. In its territory, where paths converge to the jungle, coast and mountains, the Chavín culture emerged and developed, which later influenced the Recuay and Wari cultures.
In the second half of the 15th century it was integrated into the Tahuantinsuyo until the arrival of the Spanish colonizers who took advantage of its great mining and maritime potential for more than 300 years. Today these economic activities continue to be the axis of growth of the region but framed within a larger socio-economic structure where the still incipient middle class is the main agent of growth. Acash has a rich historical and natural heritage, among those that stand out: the pre-Inca archaeological sites of Chavín de Huantar and Sechín, and a well-preserved stretch of 50 km of the Inca Trail. It also has 340,000 hectares dedicated to protected natural areas in the Huascarán National Park and the Reserved Zone of the Cordillera de Huayhuash and the paleontological deposit of Yanashallash, located in the departmental sierra. The department is the sixth economy in the country for contributing 3.5% to the Gross National Added Value.
The relative importance of the region in the country is greater in the case of the mining, fishing and manufacturing sectors.47.8% of the employed population works in the tertiary sector, followed by 37% in the primary sector, and the remaining 15.2% in the secondary sector.