Caazapá is one of the seventeen departments that, together with Asunción, the Capital District, form the Republic of Paraguay. Its capital is the homonymous Caazapá and the most populated city of the department is San Juan Nepomuceno. It is located in the southern center of the eastern region of the country, bounded on the north by Guairá, on the northeast by Alto Paraná, on the south by Itapúa, on the southwest by Misiones and on the west by Paraguarí. With 184,530 habs.
In 2017 it is the seventh least populated department - ahead of Amambay, Misiones, Presidente Hayes, Ñeembucú, Boquerón and Alto Paraguay, the least populated - and with 9,496 km² is the fifth least extensive, ahead of Paraguarí, Cordillera, Guairá and Central, the least extensive. Its name comes from the guaraní ka'avy jahasapa, meaning "beyond the forest".