Callao is a port city located in the constitutional province of Callao which is located in the center-west of Peru and in turn in the central coast of the Peruvian coast and in the central western zone of South America. Being on the shores of the Pacific Ocean, it develops to the west of the province of Lima and 15 kilometers from the Historical Center of Lima, a city with which it is located. Most of its territory extends into a broad bay protected by the San Lorenzo, El Frontón, Cavinzas and Redondo islets, south of the mouth of the Rímac River, but also reaches the northernmost part of the Bay of Lima. Both bays are separated by a peninsula known as La Punta.
Its extension is 148.57 km², including 17.63 km² island. It is located at 5 meters above sea level. Since colonial times, the port of Callao has been the largest seaport, the most important in Peru and one of the most important in America, and today it has the main port in the country and the Jorge Chávez International Airport. Reason why it is constituted in the main door of entrance to Peru. These in turn are the 'natural' port and airport of the city of Lima.
By population, El Callao would become the third largest city in the country hosting more than 800,000 inhabitants, and, being part of the conurbation next to Metropolitan Lima, has a floating population of approximately 500,000 inhabitants who visit it daily for family reasons., tourist, educational and business, among others. Callao always had the privilege of receiving military visitors - especially mariners -, merchants, immigrants, tourists and other types of social currents. The Chalaco people have always been protagonists of many national historical events. For example, it is in this city, among others, where Peru played independence or where it had to defend its national sovereignty, to name the most outstanding. Precisely, it is in these places where El Callao is granted the title of "Constitutional Province", a title that nevertheless does not have any difference with the other Peruvian provinces. It is rather an honorary title that was granted at the time of its constitution because of its historical importance and because of its commercial importance as the "first port" of Peru.
It is necessary to mention that the Constitutional Province of Callao includes the same territorial area as the Callao Region, however they are different circumscriptions with different political competences.