Montevideo is one of the nineteen departments that make up the Eastern Republic of Uruguay. Its capital is the homonymous city, at the same time capital of the country. It is located in the south of the country, bounded on the north and east by Canelones, on the south by the Plata River that separates it from Argentina, and on the west by San José. With 530 km² it is the least extensive department, with 1 319 108 inhabitants in 2011, the most populated, and with 2489 inhabitants / km², the most densely populated. Its maximum elevation is the Cerro de Montevideo, with 132 m of height.
With approximately 40% of the total population of the country, it is the smallest department in terms of area and the one with the highest population density. Its zone of influence includes the neighboring municipalities, forming what is known as the Metropolitan Area of Montevideo.