Oshana is one of the fourteen regions of Namibia. Oshana is an appropriate name for this region in that it describes the most prominent feature of the landscape in the area, namely the shallow, seasonally flooded depressions that underpin the local agro-ecological system. Although communications become difficult during the rainy season, fish that breed in the Oshan provide an important source of dietary protein. The Oshakati-Ongwediva-Ondangwa complex has experienced dramatic urban growth in recent years and forms an important commercial focus and industrial potential. Together, it forms the second largest population concentration in Namibia after Windoek, but still lacks the basic infrastructure and most of the services and facilities normally found in urban areas of this size.
The majority of business in North Namibia is located here, providing a significant number of jobs. However, urbanization continues and unemployment has risen since the withdrawal of the South African Security Forces. The creation of non-agricultural work opportunities will therefore have to receive urgent attention. The Omahangu or pearl millet is the main staple food grown in Oshana, which is suitable for agriculture. However, the soil is depleted in most of the central area and requires substantial fertilization in order to maintain a reasonable productivity. Cattle are also suitable here and herds are extensive. The southern part of Oshana is an extensive savannah plain that narrows to Etosha Pan, but the generally high salinity of soils and water makes it unsuitable for grazing or cultivation.
The area is much more densely populated in the north, which is linked to Tsumeb and other regions by a high-quality trunk route. That also facilitates the transport of cargo. However, a significant improvement of the rest of the road network and other forms of telecommunications is required. Oshakati and Ondangwa have airstrips for medium-sized airplanes only in daylight and for both passenger and cargo transports. The establishment of a control tower can contribute to the improvement for all types of weather. Reasonably good hospitals are located in Oshakati and Onjiipa, which maintains several clinics. Although both primary and secondary schools are spread throughout the region, there are still too few. Oshana is one of the only three regions without coast or border with other countries. It limits with the following regions :. Ohangwena - north. Oshikoto - east. Kunene - south. Omusati - west.