Tonga, officially the Kingdom of Tonga, is an Oceanian country integrated into Polynesia and constituted as a parliamentary monarchy, and through its maritime territory it borders the French overseas community of Wallis and Futuna and Samoa to the north. To the northeast with American Samoa. To the east with the territories of Niue and Cook Islands, belonging to New Zealand. And to the west with Fiji. To the south, the closest islands are the Kermadec Islands, also under New Zealand's rule. Its capital and most populated city is Nukualofa.
With an area of 747 km², Tonga is ranked 186th in size among the countries of the world, formed by the union of more than 177 islands, also known as the Islands of Friends, of which approximately 36 are inhabited The population of the kingdom is slightly over 100 000 inhabitants, which translates into a population density of 139 inhabitants / km². The majority of its population is followers of a Christian church and speaks the two official languages of the country: English and Tongan. The Lapita arrived in the present territory of Tonga between 1500 and 1000 BC. C. They developed their own culture and even created an empire that spread to other Pacific islands. The first Europeans to arrive in the archipelago were the Dutch Willem Schouten and Jacob Le Maire in 1616. In 1845 George Tupou I unified the territory in a kingdom and promulgated the country's constitution. In 1900 Tonga became a British protectorate, formally gaining independence in 1970. Thanks to the reforms of the 21st century, the country became a parliamentary monarchy.
Today, Tonga is a member of the United Nations Organization, the Commonwealth of Nations, the World Trade Organization and the Forum of the Pacific Islands. Tonga is a developing country whose economy is similar to that of its neighboring countries. It relies heavily on tourism and the exploitation of its agricultural products. The infrastructure, public services, education and the health care system are developed but still face several challenges. The Tongan culture still retains many characteristics of its first settlers and is recognized worldwide for its music, dance, gastronomy, sports and festivities.