Malawi or Malawi, officially the Republic of Malawi is a landlocked country located in southeastern Africa, formerly known as Nyasaland. It borders Zambia to the northwest, Tanzania to the northeast and Mozambique to the east, south and west. The country is separated from Tanzania and Mozambique by Lake Malawi, one of the lakes with the largest area of the African continent. Its name comes from the ancient Maravi kingdoms, a series of states formed by Bantu tribes that inhabited the area. During the tenth century it was populated by immigrants and remained ruled by a native government until 1891, when it was colonized by the British, who ruled until 1964.
After the dissolution of the federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, and after gaining its independence, Malawi It became a one-party state under the presidency of Hastings Banda, who ruled until 1994, when power was taken from him. Bingu Mutharika was re-elected in 2009 and remained in power until April 6,2012, when he died of cardiac arrest, has a democratic and multiparty government, and has a small army, which includes the armed forces, a navy and an air force. Its foreign policy is pro-Western and includes positive diplomatic relations with most countries and participation in several international organizations. It is among the least developed and most densely populated countries of the continent. The economy is based on agriculture, especially subsistence, with a highly rural population. The Malawi government relies heavily on external support to meet its economic needs, although these needs have increased since 2000.
The government faces major challenges in the growth of the economy, education, health and environmental protection, and is becoming financially independent. It has several development programs since 2005 that concentrate on the previous points, and the country seems to be improving, with great advances in the fields of economy, education and health seen in 2007 and 2008. It has a low index of life expectancy and a high rate of infant mortality, in addition to the existence of thousands of AIDS cases, a fact that has led to the reduction of labor forces and the increase in government spending. It expects to have a significant impact on the Gross Domestic Product for 2010.
There is a cultural diversity in the population that includes the natives and minorities of Asians and Europeans, with multiple languages and different beliefs, although there were tribal conflicts in the past, in the 21st century they have diminished considerably and the concept of Malawi nationality has begun to be reformed. Despite the wars that have taken place in this country over the years, it is known worldwide as "The cradle of Africa" or "The warm heart of Africa". Its inhabitants are characterized for being hospitable and for rejecting the conflict. It has a culture that combines local and colonial aspects, including sports, art, dance and music.